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11  Advanced Topics

11.1 Customising the User Interface
11.1.1 Customising The Main Menu
11.1.2 Loading Languages
11.2 Configuring the Theme
11.2.1 Themeing – General Info
11.2.2 Themes – Create Your Own
11.3 Managing Rockbox Settings
11.3.1 Introduction to .cfg Files
11.3.2 Specifications for .cfg Files
11.3.3 The Manage Settings menu
11.4 Firmware Loading
11.4.1 Using ROLO (Rockbox Loader)
11.5 Rockbox in Flash
11.5.1 Introduction
11.5.2 Terminology and Basic Operation
11.5.3 Initial Flashing Procedure
11.5.4 Updating the Rockbox Image in Flash
11.5.5 Restoring the Original Flash ROM Contents
11.6 Optimising battery runtime
11.6.1 Display backlight
11.6.2 Anti-Skip Buffer
11.6.3 Audio format and bitrate

11.1  Customising the User Interface

11.1.1  Customising The Main Menu

It is possible to customise the main menu, i.e. to reorder or to hide some of its items (only the main menu can be customised, submenus can not). To accomplish this, load a .cfg file (as described in section 11.3) containing the following line: root menu order:items, where “items” is a comma separated list (no spaces around the commas!) of the following words: bookmarks, files, database, wps, settings, playlists, plugins, system_menu, shutdown, shortcuts. Each of the words, if it occurs in the list, activates the appropriate item in the main menu. The order of the items is given by the order of the words in the list. The items whose words do not occur in the list will be hidden, with one exception: the menu item Settings will be shown even if its word is not in the list (it is added as the last item then).

The following configuration example will change the main menu so that it will contain only the items for the file browser, for resuming the playback, and for changing the settings (the latter will be added automatically).

  root menu order:files,wps

To reset the menu items to the default, use root menu order:- (i.e. use a hyphen instead of “items”).

This configuration entry can only be created and edited with a text editor or the Main Menu Config Plugin (see section 10.4.7). It is not possible to change this setting via the settings menu.

11.1.2  Loading Languages

Rockbox can load language files at runtime. Simply copy the .lng file (do not use the .lang file) to the player and “play” it in the Rockbox directory browser or select Settings General Settings Language from the Main Menu.

Note: If you want a language to be loaded automatically every time you start up, it must be located in the /.rockbox/langs directory and the filename must be a maximum of 24 characters long.

If your language is not yet supported and you want to write your own language file find the instructions on the Rockbox website: LangFiles

11.2  Configuring the Theme

11.2.1  Themeing – General Info

There are various different aspects of the Rockbox interface that can be themed – the WPS or While Playing Screen, the FMS or FM Screen (if the player has a tuner), and the SBS or Base Skin. The WPS is the name used to describe the information displayed on the player’s screen whilst an audio track is being played, the FMS is the screen shown while listening to the radio, and the SBS lets you specify a base skin that is shown in the menus and browsers, as well as the WPS and FMS. The SBS also allows you to control certain aspects of the appearance of the menus/browsers. There are a number of themes included in Rockbox, and you can load one of these at any time by selecting it in Settings Theme Settings Browse Theme Files. It is also possible to set individual items of a theme from within the Settings Theme Settings menu.

11.2.2  Themes – Create Your Own

The theme files are simple text files, and can be created (or edited) in your favourite text editor. To make sure non-English characters display correctly in your theme you must save the theme files with UTF-8 character encoding. This can be done in most editors, for example Notepad in Windows 2000 or XP (but not in 9x/ME) can do this.

Files Locations:
Each different “themeable” aspect requires its own file – WPS files have the extension .wps, FM screen files have the extension .fms, and SBS files have the extension .sbs. The main theme file has the extension .cfg. All files should have the same name.

The theme .cfg file should be placed in the /.rockbox/themes directory, while the .wps, .fms and .sbs files should be placed in the /.rockbox/wps directory. Any images used by the theme should be placed in a subdirectory of /.rockbox/wps with the same name as the theme, e.g. if the theme files are named mytheme.wps, mytheme.sbs etc., then the images should be placed in /.rockbox/wps/mytheme.

All full list of the available tags are given in appendix section B; some of the more powerful concepts in theme design are discussed below.

Note: Keep in mind that your player’s resolution is char×11×1 (with the last number giving the colour depth in bits) when designing your own WPS, or if you use a WPS designed for another target.

Conditional Tags
Syntax: %?xx<true|false>

If the tag specified by “xx” has a value, the text between the “<” and the “|” is displayed (the true part), else the text between the “|” and the “>” is displayed (the false part). The else part is optional, so the “|” does not have to be specified if no else part is desired. The conditionals nest, so the text in the if and else part can contain all % commands, including conditionals.

Syntax: %?xx<alt1|alt2|alt3|…|else>

For tags with multiple values, like Play status, the conditional can hold a list of alternatives, one for each value the tag can have. Example enumeration:


The last else part is optional, and will be displayed if the tag has no value. The WPS parser will always display the last part if the tag has no value, or if the list of alternatives is too short.

Next Song Info

You can display information about the next song – the song that is about to play after the one currently playing (unless you change the plan).

If you use the upper-case versions of the three tags: F, I and D, they will instead refer to the next song instead of the current one. Example: %Ig is the genre name used in the next song and %Ff is the mp3 frequency.

Note: The next song information will not be available at all times, but will most likely be available at the end of a song. We suggest you use the conditional display tag a lot when displaying information about the next song!

Alternating Sublines

It is possible to group items on each line into 2 or more groups or “sublines”. Each subline will be displayed in succession on the line for a specified time, alternating continuously through each defined subline.

Items on a line are broken into sublines with the semicolon ‘;’ character. The display time for each subline defaults to 2 seconds unless modified by using the ‘%t’ tag to specify an alternate time (in seconds and optional tenths of a second) for the subline to be displayed.

Subline related special characters and tags:

Split items on a line into separate sublines
Set the subline display time. The ‘%t’ is followed by either integer seconds (%t5), or seconds and tenths of a second within () e.g. (%t(3.5)).

Each alternating subline can still be optionally scrolled while it is being displayed, and scrollable formats can be displayed on the same line with non-scrollable formats (such as track elapsed time) as long as they are separated into different sublines. Example subline definition:

   %s%t(4)%ia;%s%it;%t(3)%pc %pr : Display id3 artist for 4 seconds,
                               Display id3 title for 2 seconds,
                               Display current and remaining track time
                               for 3 seconds,

Conditionals can be used with sublines to display a different set and/or number of sublines on the line depending on the evaluation of the conditional. Example subline with conditionals:


The format above will do two different things depending if ID3 tags are present. If the ID3 artist and title are present:

If the ID3 artist and title are not present:

Note that by using a subline display time of 0 in one branch of a conditional, a subline can be skipped (not displayed) when that condition is met.

Using Images

You can have as many as 52 images in your WPS. There are various ways of displaying images:

Load and always show the image, using the %x tag
Preload the image with %xl and show it with %xd. This way you can have your images displayed conditionally.

Example on bitmap preloading and use:


Four images at the same x and y position are preloaded in the example. Which image to display is determined by the %mm tag (the repeat mode).

Example File

  %s%?in<%in - >%?it<%it|%fn> %?ia<[%ia%?id<, %id>]>

That is, “tracknum – title [artist, album]”, where most fields are only displayed if available. Could also be rendered as “filename” or “tracknum – title [artist]”.

11.3  Managing Rockbox Settings

11.3.1  Introduction to .cfg Files

Rockbox allows users to store and load multiple settings through the use of configuration files. A configuration file is simply a text file with the extension .cfg.

A configuration file may reside anywhere on the disk. Multiple configuration files are permitted. So, for example, you could have a car.cfg file for the settings that you use while playing your jukebox in your car, and a headphones.cfg file to store the settings that you use while listening to your player through headphones.

See section 11.3.2 below for an explanation of the format for configuration files. See section 11.3.3 for an explanation of how to create, edit and load configuration files.

11.3.2  Specifications for .cfg Files

The Rockbox configuration file is a plain text file, so once you use the Save .cfg file option to create the file, you can edit the file on your computer using any text editor program. See Appendix section C for available settings. Configuration files use the following formatting rules:

Each setting must be on a separate line.
Each line has the format “setting: value”.
Values must be within the ranges specified in this manual for each setting.
Lines starting with # are ignored. This lets you write comments into your configuration files.

Example of a configuration file:

  volume: 70
  bass: 11
  treble: 12
  balance: 0
  time format: 12hour
  volume display: numeric
  show files: supported
  wps: /.rockbox/car.wps
  lang: /.rockbox/afrikaans.lng

Note: As you can see from the example, configuration files do not need to contain all of the Rockbox options. You can create configuration files that change only certain settings. So, for example, suppose you typically use the player at one volume in the car, and another when using headphones. Further, suppose you like to use an inverse LCD when you are in the car, and a regular LCD setting when you are using headphones. You could create configuration files that control only the volume and LCD settings. Create a few different files with different settings, give each file a different name (such as car.cfg, headphones.cfg, etc.), and you can then use the Browse .cfg files option to quickly change settings.

A special case configuration file can be used to force a particular setting or settings every time Rockbox starts up (e.g. to set the volume to a safe level). Format a new configuration file as above with the required setting(s) and save it into the /.rockbox directory with the filename fixed.cfg.

11.3.3  The Manage Settings menu

The Manage Settings menu can be found in the Main Menu. The Manage Settings menu allows you to save and load .cfg files.

Browse .cfg Files
Opens the File Browser in the /.rockbox directory and displays all .cfg (configuration) files. Selecting a .cfg file will cause Rockbox to load the settings contained in that file. Pressing Stop will exit back to the Manage Settings menu. See the Write .cfg files option on the Manage Settings menu for details of how to save and edit a configuration file.
Reset Settings
This wipes the saved settings in the player and resets all settings to their default values.
Save .cfg File
This option writes a .cfg file to your player’s disk. The configuration file has the .cfg extension and is used to store all of the user settings that are described throughout this manual.

Hint: Use the Save .cfg File feature (Main Menu Manage Settings) to save the current settings, then use a text editor to customize the settings file. See Appendix section C for the full reference of available options.

Save Sound Settings
This option writes a .cfg file to your player’s disk. The configuration file has the .cfg extension and is used to store all of the sound related settings.
Save Theme Settings
This option writes a .cfg file to your player’s disk. The configuration file has the .cfg extension and is used to store all of the theme related settings.

11.4  Firmware Loading

When your player powers on, it loads the Archos firmware in ROM, which automatically checks your player’s root directory for a file named archos.mod. Note that Archos firmware can only read the first ten characters of each filename in this process, so do not rename your old firmware files with names like archos.mod.old and so on, because it is possible that the player will load a file other than the one you intended.

11.4.1  Using ROLO (Rockbox Loader)

Rockbox is able to load and start another firmware file without rebooting. You just “play” a file with the extension .mod. This can be used to test new firmware versions without deleting your current version.

11.5  Rockbox in Flash

11.5.1  Introduction

When you bought your Studio/Player, it came with the Archos firmware in flash ROM. When you power on your player, this Archos firmware starts, and then loads an updated firmware from disk if present (archos.mod). An ordinary Rockbox installation only replaces the on-disk firmware, leaving the flash ROM contents intact. That means the Archos firmware still controls the boot process.

The main reason to change this is to improve the startup time of your player. The Archos bootloader is rather slow. With Rockbox in flash, your player will boot much faster, typically in three to five seconds. Furthermore you might prefer a clean Rockbox environment, with as little remnants of the Archos software as possible. On your player it is also possible to execute Rockbox directly from flash ROM, increasing the amount of free RAM for buffering music. This is called Rombox.

Warning: Flashing your player is somewhat dangerous, like programming a mainboard BIOS, CD/DVD drive firmware, mobile phone, etc. If the power fails, the chip breaks while programming or most of all the programming software malfunctions, you’ll have a dead box. We take no responsibility of any kind, you do that at your own risk. However, we tried as carefully as possible to bulletproof this code. There are a lot of sanity checks. If any of them fails, it will not program.

There’s an ultimate safety net to bring back boxes with even completely garbled flash content: the UART boot mod, which in turn requires the serial mod. With that it’s possible to reflash independently from the outside, even if the flash ROM is completely erased. This won’t work if you have one of the rare “ROMless” boxes. These have no boot ROM and boot directly from flash. If the first 2 KB of the flash ROM are flashed OK, Minimon can be used for the same purpose.

11.5.2  Terminology and Basic Operation

The flash ROM contents as a whole.
One operating software started from there.

The replacement firmware contains a bootloader and two images. The first image is the permanent rescue software, to be used in case something is wrong with the second (main) image. In current firmware files this first image contains Bootbox (see wiki for details). The second image is what is booted by default. The current firmware files contain a copy of Rockbox 3.2 in the main image. It can easily be updated/replaced later.

The bootloader allows to select which image to run. Pressing Minus at boot selects the first image. Play selects the second image, which will also be booted if you don’t press any button. The button mapping is only there for completeness. Plus selects the built-in serial monitor called Minimon. You should know this in case you invoke it by accident. Minimon won’t display anything on the screen. To get out of it, perform a hardware shutdown of your player.

11.5.3  Initial Flashing Procedure

You only need to perform this procedure the first time you flash your Studio/Player. You may also want to perform it in case the update procedure for the second image recommends it. In the latter case do not perform the steps listed under “Preparation”.


First, check whether your Studio/Player is flashable at all. Select System Debug (Keep Out!) View HW Info. Cycle through the displayed values with Plus/ Minus until “Flash:” is displayed. If it shows question marks, you’re out of luck, your player is not flashable without modifying the hardware. You can stop here. Sorry.

If your player is flashable, you should perform a backup of the current flash ROM contents, in case you want to restore it later. Select System Debug (Keep Out!) Dump ROM contents. You’ll notice a few seconds of disk activity. When you connect your player to the PC afterwards, you’ll find two files in the root of your player. Copy the 256 KB-sized file named internal_rom_2000000-203FFFF.bin to a safe place.


Download the correct package for your player from http://download.rockbox.org/bootloader/archos/. It is named flash-<model>-<version>.zip. The current packages are v3.
Unzip the flash package to the root of your player. This will extract two files to the root, firmware_<model>.bin and firmware_<model>_norom.bin. The flash plugin will select the correct one for your player. Now safely disconnect USB.
Make sure your batteries are in good shape and fully charged. Flashing doesn’t need more power than normal operation, but you don’t want your player to run out of power while flashing.
Select Plugins Applications, and run the firmware_flash plugin. It will tell you about your flash and which file it is going to program. After pressing Menu it will check the file. If the file is OK, pressing On will give you a big warning. If we still didn’t manage to scare you off, you need to press Plus to actually program and verify. The programming takes just a few seconds.
In the unlikely event that the programming or verify steps should give you any error, do not switch off the box! Otherwise you’ll have seen it working for the last time. While Rockbox is still in RAM and operational, we could upgrade the plugin via USB and try again. If you switch it off, it’s gone.

Note: After successful flashing you may delete the .bin files from the root of your player.

Note: There are no separate flash packages for players modified to have 8 MB of RAM. You need to use the corresponding package for non-modified Studio/Player. You should then install a Rockbox image that makes use of all available RAM as described in the following section.

11.5.4  Updating the Rockbox Image in Flash

When Rockbox is booted from flash, it does not check for an updated firmware on disk. This is one of the reasons why it boots faster than the Archos firmware. It means that whenever you update Rockbox, you also need to update the image in the flash. This is a simple and safe procedure:

Download (or build) the Rockbox build you want to use, and unzip it to the root of your player. Safely disconnect USB.
ROLO into the new Rockbox version.
Go to the file browser, and enter the .rockbox directory (you might need to set the File View option to All.)
Play the file rockbox.ucl, or preferably rombox.ucl, and follow the instructions. The plugin handling this is rockbox_flash, a viewer plugin.

11.5.5  Restoring the Original Flash ROM Contents

In case you ever want to restore the original flash contents, you will need the backup file. The procedure is very similar to initial flashing, with the following differences:

Check that you do not have any firmware_*.bin files in your player’s root.
Select Plugins Applications, and run the firmware_flash plugin. Write down the filename it displays in the first screen, then exit the plugin.
Connect USB, and copy the flash ROM backup file to the root of your player. Only use the backup file from that very box, otherwise you’re asking for trouble! Rename the file so that it matches the name requested by the firmware_flash plugin. Safely disconnect USB.

Now follow the instructions given for initial flashing, starting with step 3.

11.6  Optimising battery runtime

Rockbox offers a lot of settings that have high impact on the battery runtime of your player. The largest power savings can be achieved through disabling unneeded hardware components – for some of those there are settings available.

The following provides a short overview of the most relevant settings and rules of thumb.

11.6.1  Display backlight

The active backlight consumes a lot of power. Therefore choose a setting that disables the backlight after timeout (for setting Backlight see section 8.4). Avoid having the backlight enabled all the time (Activating selectivebacklight section 8.4 can further reduce power consumption).

11.6.2  Anti-Skip Buffer

Having a large anti-skip buffer tends to use more power, and may reduce your battery life. It is recommended to always use the lowest possible setting that allows correct and continuous playback (see section 7.5).

11.6.3  Audio format and bitrate

Your target uses a hard disk which consumes a large amount of power while spinning – up to several hundred mA. The less often the hard disk needs to spin up for buffering and the shorter the buffering duration is, the lower is the power consumption. Therefore the bitrate of the audio files does have an impact on the battery runtime as well. Lower bitrate audio files will result in longer battery runtime.

Please do not re-encode any existing audio files from one lossy format to another based upon the above mentioned. This will reduce the audio quality. If you have the choice, select the best suiting codec when encoding the original source material.